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Root Canal Treatment

Root Canal -general information

The term “root canal” can refer to both the inner part (passages) of the tooth between the pulp and tooth roots, and to the dental procedure used to remove infected material and relieve root canal pain. 

Root Canal

Root Canal -anatomical structure

Tooth structure

A tooth is made up of two parts. The crown is the top part of the tooth that's visible in the mouth. The root extends into the bone of the jaw, anchoring the tooth in position.

Teeth also consist of:

  • Enamel – the hard outer coating
  • Dentine – a softer material that supports the enamel and forms most of the tooth
  • Cementum – a hard material that coats the root's surface
  • Dental Pulp – the soft tissue at the centre of the tooth

The root canal system contains the dental pulp and extends from the crown of the tooth to the end of the root. A single tooth can have more than one root canal.

Root Canal

Sings of needing root canal treatment

  • Severe toothache pain upon chewing or application of pressure
  • Prolonged sensitivity (pain) to hot or cold temperatures (after the heat or cold has been removed)
  • Discoloration (darkening) of the tooth
  • Swelling and tenderness in nearby gums
  • A persistent or recurring pimple on the gums

Sometimes no symptoms are present.

Root Canal

The importance of root canal treatment

When pulp is damaged, it breaks down, and bacteria begin to multiply within the pulp chamber. The bacteria and other dying pulp remnants can cause an infection or abscessed tooth. An abscess is a pus-filled pocket that forms at the end of a tooth’s root. In addition to an abscess, an infection in the root canal of a tooth can cause:

  • Swelling that may spread to other areas of the face, neck, or head
  • Bone loss around the tip of the root
  • Drainage problems extending outward from the root. A hole can occur through the side of the tooth, with drainage into the gums or through the cheek into the skin.
Root Canal

What Damages a Tooth's Pulp in the First Place?

A tooth's pulp can become irritated, inflamed, and infected due to deep decay, repeated dental procedures on a tooth, large fillings, a crack or chip in the tooth, or trauma to the face.

Hollywood Smile

Reasons of venner ?

A dentist may offer dental veneers to correct a wide range of dental issues, such as:

  • Discolored teeth that can’t be corrected by whitening (root canal treatment, tetracycline or other drugs, excessive fluoride causes the discoloration of the tooth)
  • Worn teeth
  • Chipped or broken teeth
  • Misaligned or crooked teeth
  • Irregularly shaped teeth, which can be restored by veneers
  • Veneers used to close the gaps between the frontal teeth
Hollywood Smile

Types of Venners

Porcelain Veneers

Porcelain veneers are composed of a durable, high-quality ceramic that can be matched to the shade of your surrounding teeth for a seamless, natural look. This common cosmetic dentistry procedure uses veneers that can be individually customized for your teeth, achieving the best possible fit as well as a beautiful appearance. The hand-layered porcelain has a dynamic quality that catches light just like the enamel of a natural tooth. Porcelain veneers are often considered a minimal-prep procedure, preserving the majority of your existing tooth structure while achieving long-lasting smile rejuvenation.

Lumineers

A specific brand of porcelain veneers called Lumineers® can dramatically improve the appearance of your smile with a treatment that enhances your comfort and minimizes the time of the procedure. Depending on your unique needs, the Lumineers® procedure is an extremely conservative restoration treatment that requires either minimal tooth preparation or no tooth preparation at all. Even thinner than traditional porcelain veneers, Lumineers® are composed of Cerinate® ceramic – an ultra-thin material that can typically be placed without the use of drilling or injections. With the same benefits as traditional porcelain veneers and more, Lumineers® can give you an enhanced experience along with high-quality, durable, beautiful results.

Composite Resin

Composite veneers offer many of the same rejuvenation benefits as porcelain veneers, including the concealment of cracks, chips, gaps, and discoloration. These lower-cost veneers can allow you to achieve a beautiful smile that also fits comfortably within your budget; however, composite veneers may not last quite as long as traditional porcelain veneers due to the differences in materials. In most cases, composite veneers require either minimal tooth preparation or no tooth preparation at all, preserving your natural tooth structure while also delivering natural-looking results.

Zirconia

Zirconia porcelain veneers are often ideal for patients who have teeth that are more severely damaged or decayed. These restorations can be stronger than traditional porcelain veneers, and offer a compromised tooth some structural reinforcement. In addition, due to the material’s extreme durability, Zirconia can be used to create dental crowns and dental implant restorations.

Dental braces

Dental Braces-general information

Dental braces are wire-based appliances that orthodontists use to correct crowded and misaligned teeth or jaws. Many people who need dental braces get them during their early teenage years, but adults also can benefit from wearing braces. The goal of dental braces is to properly align your teeth and jaws to produce an even bite and pleasing smile.

Dental Braces

Why it's done

Dental braces offer corrective treatment for:

  • Overcrowded or crooked teeth
  • Too much space between teeth
  • Upper front teeth that overlap the lower teeth too much — either vertically (overbite) or horizontally (overjet)
  • Upper front teeth that bite behind the lower ones (underbite)
  • Other jaw misalignment problems that cause an uneven bite

Proper alignment of your teeth and jaws may improve not only the appearance of your teeth but also the health of your mouth and the way you bite, chew and speak.

Dental Braces

How you to take care of your dental braces

Careful cleaning is required with braces, because plaque bacteria are easily trapped inside and around them. The following procedure will make daily brushing and flossing both simple and effective.

  • Prepare to brush. Take off elastics and any other removable parts of your orthodontic appliance.
  • Clean your braces. Hold your brush at a 45-degree angle to clean around the wires and pins of your braces. Brush from the top of each wire down to the bottom. Take your time to ensure that all plaque and debris are removed, and that you work all the way around upper and lower teeth.
  • Brush your teeth. Clean each tooth individually. First, place your brush at a 45-degree angle the gum line, then apply gentle pressure as you move in a circular motion. Do this for about 10 seconds. Use the same brushing action on all outer and inner tooth surfaces, tilting the brush as needed to better reach the insides of smaller front teeth.
  • Floss once a day. Have your dental professional show you the best way to floss, or follow the instructions on the product package. You may also want to use a flossing product designed for braces and orthodontic work, like a floss threader.
  • Rinse and check your teeth. Rinse thoroughly with water or mouth rinse, and examine your teeth and braces in the mirror.
  • Professional Care: Dentist And Orthodontist Visits
Dental Braces

Braces types

Metal braces/Traditional braces

These are the metal brackets and wires that most people picture when they hear the word "braces." However, modern brackets are smaller and less noticeable than the notorious "metal-mouth" braces that many adults remember. Plus, new heat-activated archwires use your body heat to help teeth move more quickly and less painfully than in the past. 

Ceramic Braces

Ceramic braces are the same size and shape as metal braces, except that they have tooth-colored or clear brackets that blend in to teeth. Some even use tooth-colored wires to be even less noticeable.

Lingual Braces

Lingual braces are the same as traditional metal braces, except that the brackets and wires are placed on the inside of teeth.

Invisalign

Invisalign consists of a series of 18 to 30 custom-made, mouth guard-like clear plastic aligners. The aligners are removable and are replaced every 2 weeks.

Dental implant

Dental Implant -general information

Dental implants are replacement tooth roots. Implants provide a strong foundation for fixed (permanent) or removable replacement teeth that are made to match your natural teeth.

Dental implant

Advantages of Dental Implants

There are many advantages to dental implants, including:

  • Improved appearance. Dental implants look and feel like your own teeth. And because they are designed to fuse with bone, they become permanent.
  • Improved speech. With poor-fitting dentures, the teeth can slip within the mouth causing you to mumble or slur your words. Dental implants allow you to speak without the worry that teeth might slip.
  • Improved comfort. Because they become part of you, implants eliminate the discomfort of removable dentures.
  • Easier eating. Sliding dentures can make chewing difficult. Dental implants function like your own teeth, allowing you to eat your favorite foods with confidence and without pain.
  • Improved self-esteem. Dental implants can give you back your smile and help you feel better about yourself.
  • Improved oral health. Dental implants don't require reducing other teeth, as a tooth-supported bridge does. Because nearby teeth are not altered to support the implant, more of your own teeth are left intact, improving long-term oral health. Individual implants also allow easier access between teeth, improving oral hygiene.
  • Durability. Implants are very durable and will last many years. With good care, many implants last a lifetime.
  • Convenience. Removable dentures are just that; removable. Dental implants eliminate the embarrassing inconvenience of removing dentures, as well as the need for messy adhesives to keep them in place.
Dental implant

Care for Dental Implants

Dental implants require the same care as real teeth, including brushing, flossing, rinsing with an antibacterial mouthwash, and regular dental check-ups.

Dental implant

Types of dental implants

The American Dental Association considers two types of implants to be safe. They are

  • Endosteal implants — these are surgically implanted directly into the jawbone. Once the surrounding gum tissue has healed, a second surgery is needed to connect a post to the original implant. Finally, an artificial tooth (or teeth) is attached to the post-individually, or grouped on a bridge or denture.
  • Subperiosteal implants — these consist of a metal frame that is fitted onto the jawbone just below the gum tissue. As the gums heal, the frame becomes fixed to the jawbone. Posts, which are attached to the frame, protrude through the gums. As with endosteal implants, artificial teeth are then mounted to the posts.
Teeth Whitening

Teeth Whitening -general Information

Tooth whitening lightens teeth and helps to remove stains and discoloration. Whitening is among the most popular cosmetic dental procedures because it can greatly improve how your teeth look. Most dentists perform tooth whitening.

Whitening is not a one-time procedure. It will need to be repeated from time to time if you want to maintain the brighter color.

Natural tooth

Reasons for whitening

There are a number of reasons why you might get your teeth whitened. Everyone is different; and just as our hair and skin colour vary, so do our teeth. Very few people have brilliant-white teeth, and our teeth can also become more discoloured as we get older.

Your teeth can also be stained on the surface by food and drinks such as tea, coffee, red wine and blackcurrant. Smoking can also stain teeth.

‘Calculus' or tartar can also affect the colour of your teeth. Some people may have staining under the surface, which can be caused by certain antibiotics or by tiny cracks in the teeth which take up stains.

Tooth staining and discoloration

main types of whitening procedures

Vital whitening is performed on teeth that have live nerves. Non-vital whitening is done on a tooth that has had root-canal treatment and no longer has a live nerve.

  • Vital Whitening

    The most common type of vital tooth whitening uses a gel that is applied directly to the tooth surface. This product contains some form of hydrogen peroxide.

    Tooth whitening can be done in the dentist's office or at home. In-office whitening allows your dentist to use a more powerful whitening gel. A specialized light or laser activates the gel and allows bleaching to happen faster.

    In-office whitening usually takes 30 to 90 minutes. You will need 1 to 3 appointments. The number will depend upon the method used, how severe your stains are and how white you want your teeth to be. Different types of stains respond differently to the treatment.

    First, your dentist will apply a substance that covers and protects the gums around the teeth. Then, the whitening agent will be placed on the teeth.

    Some whitening agents are activated by a laser light, special lights or by the heat from these lights. After the whitening agent is applied, the dentist will shine the light on your teeth. If they are badly discolored, your dentist may suggest that you continue the bleaching process at home for a few days or weeks.

    For in-home whitening, your dentist will take impressions of your upper and lower teeth and will make custom mouthpieces to fit you. The mouthpiece needs to fit well. A close fit helps the whitening agent remain in contact with your teeth.

    At home, you will fill each mouthpiece with a whitening gel your dentist provides. You will wear the mouthpiece for several hours every day. Many people achieve the amount of whitening they want within a week or two. However, you may need to wear the mouthpiece for four weeks or longer.

    You also can buy whitening products over the counter. They contain a weaker whitening agent than the products you can get from your dentist. Therefore, whitening may take longer. The whitening agent is applied as a gel placed in a mouthpiece or as a strip that sticks to your teeth. Over-the-counter mouthpieces fit less securely than the kind you get from your dentist.

  • Whitening toothpastes 

    Whitening toothpastes are available as well. They contain abrasives that remove stains on the enamel.

  • Non-Vital Whitening

    Vital whitening may not improve the appearance of a tooth that has had root-canal treatment because the stain is coming from the inside of the tooth. If this is the case, your dentist will use a different procedure that whitens the tooth from the inside. He or she will place a whitening agent inside the tooth and put a temporary filling over it. The tooth will be left this way for several days. You may need this done only once, or it can be repeated until the tooth reaches the desired shade.

Methods

Follow-Up

Whitening is not a permanent solution. The stains will come back. If you smoke or consume a lot of staining foods or drinks, you may see the whiteness start to fade in as little as one month. If you avoid these sources of staining, you may not need another whitening treatment for 6 to 12 months.

Re-whitening can be done in the dentist's office or at home. If you have a custom-made mouthpiece and whitening agent at home, you can whiten your teeth as often as you need to. Discuss your whitening schedule with your dentist. You can talk about what whitening products would work best for you.

Dentures

Dentures -general Information

A denture is a removable replacement for missing teeth and surrounding tissues. Two types of dentures are available -- complete and partial dentures. Complete dentures are used when all the teeth are missing, while partial dentures are used when some natural teeth remain.

Dentures

Types of dentures

  • Complete Dentures

    Complete dentures can be either "conventional" or "immediate." Made after the teeth have been removed and the gum tissue has begun to heal, a conventional denture is ready for placement in the mouth about eight to 12 weeks after the teeth have been removed.

    Unlike conventional dentures, immediate dentures are made in advance and can be positioned as soon as the teeth are removed. As a result, the wearer does not have to be without teeth during the healing period. However, bones and gums shrink over time, especially during the healing period following tooth removal. Therefore a disadvantage of immediate dentures compared with conventional dentures is that they require more adjustments to fit properly during the healing process and generally should only be considered a temporary solution until conventional dentures can be made.

    Partial Dentures

    A removable partial denture or bridge usually consists of replacement teeth attached to a pink or gum-colored plastic base, which is sometimes connected by metal framework that holds the denture in place in the mouth. Partial dentures are used when one or more natural teeth remain in the upper or lower jaw. A fixed bridge replaces one or more teeth by placing crowns on the teeth on either side of the space and attaching artificial teeth to them. This "bridge" is then cemented into place. Not only does a partial denture fill in the spaces created by missing teeth, it prevents other teeth from changing position. A precision partial denture is removable and has internal attachments rather than clasps that attach to the adjacent crowns. This is a more natural-looking appliance.

    Eating With New Dentures

    Eating with new dentures will take a little practice and may be uncomfortable for some wearers for a few weeks. To get used to the new denture, start with soft foods cut into small pieces. Chew slowly using both sides of your mouth. As you get used to new dentures, add other foods until you return to a normal diet. Be cautious with hot or hard foods and sharp-edged bones or shells. And, avoid foods that are extremely sticky or hard. You should also avoid chewing gum while you wear the denture. Also, don't use toothpicks while wearing dentures.

Dentures

Dentures and How I Speak

After getting dentures, you may have difficulty pronouncing certain words. If so, practice by saying the difficult words out loud. With practice and with time you will become accustomed to speaking properly with dentures.

If dentures "click" while you're talking, contact your dentist. Dentures may occasionally slip when you laugh, cough, or smile. Reposition the dentures by gently biting down and swallowing. If any speaking problem persists, consult your dentist or prosthodontist.

Dentures

Dentures Worn duration

Your dentist or prosthodontist will instruct you as to how long to wear dentures and when to remove them. During the first several days after receiving your denture, you may be asked to wear it all the time, including while you sleep. Although this may be temporarily uncomfortable, it is the quickest way to identify the areas on the denture that may need adjustment. Once adjustments are made, you should remove dentures before going to bed. This allows gum tissues to rest and allows normal stimulation and cleansing by the tongue and saliva. The denture can be put back in the mouth in the morning.

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